What is Loan? Advantages & Disadvantages of a Bank Loan

Money borrowed by the bank or financial institution is called a loan. Learn more about Types of loans, advantages/disadvantages, and Criteria for applying for a bank loan.

What is Loan? Advantages & Disadvantages of a Bank Loan

What Is Loan?

A loan is when someone borrows money from a bank, a friend, or another financial institution with the promise of repaying it in the future, along with the principal and interest. The principal is the amount borrowed, while interest is the fee charged when the loan is received. Because lenders take a risk by providing you with a loan and are concerned that you may not be able to return it, they must cover their losses by charging an amount in the form of interest.

The majority of loans are classified as secured or unsecured. Secured loans necessitate the pledge of an asset, such as a car or a home, as loan collateral in the event that the borrower defaults or fails to repay the loan. In this situation, the asset is returned to the lender. Unsecured loans are in demand, although they are uncommon. If a borrower defaults on an unsecured loan, the lender is unable to recover any funds.

Loans: Everything You Should Know

There are numerous types of loans available depending on the financial circumstances. Banks can provide either secured or unsecured loans. People choose secured loans because of the lower interest rates and the big amount of money accessible, which can be utilized to buy a car or a home. Personal loans, which have a higher interest rate and are granted for lesser amounts for objectives such as home remodeling, are the most prevalent unsecured loans.
The maximum loan amount is determined by the person's collateral capacity and credit history. Credit cards, ordinary loans, and lines of credit are examples of credit instruments.
The open-end and closed-end credit distributions are two current consumer credit distributions.

The open-end credit, also known as revolving credit, can be used repeatedly for purchases with a monthly repayment schedule in a situation where paying back the whole amount due each month is not required. Credit cards are a common kind of revolving credit, but home equity loans and home equity lines of credit also fall into this category. A closed-end credit, on the other hand, is used to fund certain goals for a set length of time.
Consumers are forced to follow a monthly payment schedule, which includes interest costs, until the principal is paid off, making these loans known as installment loans.

In India, there are several different types of loans.

Personal Loan - Personal loans are generally available from all institutions. Personal loans provide the advantage of allowing you to spend your money as you want. This personal loan can be used to fund a vacation, a Jet Ski purchase, or the acquisition of a new smartphone.

Credit Card Loan - This is for people who need money right away. This form of loan can be obtained from your credit card company or any financial institution. This is a simple credit with extremely high-interest rates. Mortgage Loans - These are the largest loans that may be obtained. This loan is a good choice if you want to buy your first home or any real estate. Mortgage loans are guaranteed by the company you're buying from.

Car loans- A automobile loan is a sum of money borrowed by a customer from a bank or other financial organization in order to achieve his or her desire of owning a car. In exchange, you agree to repay the agreed loan amount plus interest at a certain rate. The bank makes a total payment to the vehicle dealer, and you, as a customer, continue to pay the bank over time, plus interest and any relevant fees.

Student Loans - This is a fantastic way to supplement your college education. The majority of loans in this category have relatively low-interest rates. You do not have to repay these debts right away if you are a full-time college student. However, once you finish your study and begin working, you must repay the loan.

Two-wheeler loans – A two-wheeler loan is similar to a car loan in that it works on the same concept. Because two-wheelers are one of the most popular modes of transportation, they have low down payment and interest rates, making two-wheeler loans accessible to millions of people throughout the world. A two-wheeler loan can be obtained with as little as a 5% down payment and as much as a 20% down payment.

Advantages & Disadvantages of a Bank Loan


Flexibility: As long as the payments are made on a regular and timely basis, a bank loan permits you to repay it whenever you want. Unlike an overdraft, where the entire credit limit is deducted all at once. Alternatively, a consumer credit card with a maximum limit cannot be used all at once.

When it comes to interest rates, bank loans are usually the most cost-effective alternative when compared to overdrafts and credit cards.

Profit Retention: If you raise money through stock, you must split earnings with your investors. However, with a bank loan, you are not required to split earnings with the bank.

When a loan is obtained for business purposes, the government makes the interest payable on the loan a tax-deductible item.


Hard Prerequisite: Because large bank loans require collateral, most young enterprises will find it difficult to finance their operations with a bank loan.

Irregular Payment Amounts: The rate of interest on a long-term loan paid in monthly installments may fluctuate. This means that the EMI will not be constant, but rather fluctuate depending on the market's impact on the applicable interest rate.

What Makes a Loan So Important?

It is important to recognize that the loan is a responsibility. This indicates that the lender has the company's assets in his or her possession. On a company's balance sheet, a loan re-payment due in one year from ultimate payback is usually classified as short-term debt. Long-term debt is defined as a loan repayment that is due for longer than one year. It's vital to remember that when considering liabilities, most loans come to mind, yet most liabilities aren't loans. Other sorts of liabilities that most businesses face include forthcoming payroll, bonuses, legal settlements, vendor payments, some derivatives, contracts, different types of leases, and much-needed stock redemptions.

Data on a person's or a company's debt is crucial for generating an accurate financial report. A business or individual's credit status will be ruined for years if they have too much debt on their credit reports.

Unsecured vs. Secured Loan

Secured loans are a form of loan issued by financial institutions that requires a security deposit or collateral in exchange for the loan. These could include gold, a mansion, and so on. A secured loan includes things like a loan against your home, a car loan, and so on. These assets provide lenders with assurance in the event that a loan is not repaid. These are an excellent way to obtain enormous sums of money.

Unsecured loans are short-term loans with no guarantee attached. These are usually granted based on your credit history and financial situation. Credit cards, personal loans, and other unsecured loans are examples of unsecured credit. The interest rate is higher because of the significant risk involved with this sort of borrowing.

Criteria for Obtaining a Loan

Depending on the type of loan taken out, different financial institutions have different criteria for loan applications. There are, nevertheless, some common standards:

The person must be at least 18 years old.
Give bank account information if you have a valid ID.
Proof of address
3 - 6 months' pay stubs
Proof of earnings

Obtaining a loan is a significant duty for the borrower that necessitates complete attention and timely repayment of both the principal and interest. Keep in mind that the amount that must be repaid is determined by a number of circumstances.

Period — When determining the cost of your loan, another issue to consider is the loan duration. The longer it takes you to pay off your debt, the more interest you'll accrue.

Loan Form - The type of loan you choose will have an impact on your interest rates; for example, a secured loan normally has lower rates than an unsecured loan.

Credit - Your loan rates are determined by your credit history. When you have a good credit history and are dependable, you will pay less interest.

Similarly, if your credit history is poor, it will be more difficult for you to obtain a useful loan, and your interest rate will be greater.

Inflation - The rate at which prices rise in the economy is referred to as inflation. This has a significant impact on your credit score. When you take out a loan, it's critical to know when you'll have to pay it back. If you haven't opted for a stop order, it's critical that you make your monthly payments on time for the life of the loan. There are a variety of penalties that you will incur if you do not make timely repayments or if the amount paid is not complete:

A poor credit history.
A greater rate of interest.
Reduced odds of obtaining a new loan.
A late payment fee will be added.